The Etiology of The Occupants
Historically, the first inhabitants of Flores Island was Wajak people from 40.000 years ago. After the glacial period about 4000 years ago, Nusa Tenggara (Lesser Sunda Island) separated from Asian main land. It started imigration from Asia to the south. The imigration were Proto Malayid from Yunan and China hinterland. They inhabited on west and middle of Flores. Physically, the inhabitants were characterized Melanosoid, Negroid, Papua and Australoid.
Professor Yosep Glinka (Phisical Antropologist) who studied about local inhabitants in East Nusa Tenggara, found that ….. ATA LIO (Lio Ethnic) on mid of Flores were the oldest inhabitants in Flores Island,…. LIO neighbored on ATA ENDE (Ende Ethnic). Among them not being geneological lines. Both of them neighbored on ATA NAGAKEO on west and ATA SIKKA on east ….”.
To proved the statement above, it needed more researchs. Definitely, two big ethnics existed in same teritory and have the similarities in culture and tradition such as, the way of thinking to build adat village and run ritual affairs.
The Etiology of Traditional Village
The existence of traditional village was the consequence of house and place needed where local inhabitants could live together as a unity. The ancestor of those two ethnics built Adat House and village by applying their own technology and architecture as the manisfestation of creation, productivity and art-work on early time .
Historical proven, before the modern era, there inhabited the ancestors from two ethnics who thriven on civilization in this region. They had a special ability in expressing their talents by constructing Adat village which had high value on architectural; in which, the structure become material research of architects.
Traditional village with adat houses and some complement structures such as KEDA, KANGA, TUBU MUSU, are the heritage remaining of the ancestor, although in some places those has changed and destroyed because of natural disaster, times and men; whereas, those still have historical valuable and attraction for art cultural aspect.
The mutual understanding and responsibility of local people to preserve and develop the cultural heritage remained, still occur in adat community, such as rebuild villages and adat houses in Nggela, Wiwipemo, Jopu, Mbuli, Wologai, dan Ndona. This activity is performed as the promotion of cultural attraction. Some villages which have same tradition; Ranggase, Moni, Tenda, Nuakota, Pora, Wolojita, Wolopau, Nuamulu, Sokoria, Kurulimbu, Ndungga, Wololea, Woloare, Wolofeo, Saga, Puu’tuga, and another villages.
One of the villages and unimpaired adat houses is in Wolotopo, situated at Ndona District. The oldest village, in which, The adat house on this village has the unique architectur and its appeared in Ende-Lio characteristic, even though the roof of that house resembled Joglo House in Java, but differential in philosopy background. Traditional houses and villages had been built by our ancestor by exploiting natural resources around, so the structures appeared in uniqueness architectural and comfortable for occupants.
The long journey and the cultural alkuturation from outside such as the ethnics from Bugis, Makasar and Bima had influenced the social life of local inhabitants. In the former times, the ancestor of ATA ENDE built their houses and villages resembled as ATA LIO. But on its development changed on form; and it called ‘Sao Panggo’ or ‘Tiga Tezu’ (scaffolding house with three rooms)- in which the whole components of the house made of wood or coconut bark and walled by plank or bamboos and its roof covered strecthing made from coconut leaves or shingle of bamboos and top of it decorated like a fish fin. It had the high cellar.
Sao Panggo and Sao Tiga Tezu in Aewora Village , MAUROLE
Source : Tourist Book Tourism Information Center in Ende Government